Abstract adolescents based on parenting styles. Participants

 

Abstract

            Parent-child relationship is one of
most important protective factors in the development of resilience in children.
The present study tries to understand if there is any difference in resilience
of adolescents based on parenting styles. Participants include 300 higher
secondary school students of the age group 15-17 from different schools in
Kerala. Instruments used for the study are Scale of Parenting Style
(Gafoor&Kurukkan, 2014) and Connor-Davidson’s resilience scale. Perceived
parenting style was identified on the basis of parental responsiveness and
parental control scores and ANOVA was used to understand if the resilience
level of children differed based on these styles. A significant difference was
observed and the results of the post hoc test reveal that adolescents with
authoritative and authoritarian parenting styles show more resilience when
compared to those with negligent parenting style.

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The
emergence of positive psychology in recent years laid a paradigm shift in the
approach, direction and focus of psychology from psychopathology and treatment
to prevention and promoting competence. Resilience is one important focus of
this new area of psychology. Resilience is not about passive adaptation to
adversities or trauma but it involves growing through difficulties and bouncing
back from it through active and constructive means. Resilience is one of the
most important contributing factors of well-being in students (Suresh, Jayachander, & Joshi, 2013). In
the light of research on children over the past three decades, resilience
generally refers to ‘a class of phenomena characterized by patterns of positive
adaptation in the context of significant adversity or risk’ (Masten& Reed,
2002). Resilience is also defined as ‘the process of effectively negotiating,
adapting to, or managing significant sources of stress or trauma’. Assets and
resources within the individual, their life and environment facilitate this
capacity for adaptation and ‘bouncing back’ in the face of adversity (Windle, 2010). Resilience as a
social ecological construct has presented a more ecological understanding
of resilience. Resilience is determined by both internal as well as external
factors and an outcome of interactions between these two determinants. Internal
determinants include psychological and biological factors whereas external
determinants include quality and nature of environment as well as relationships
within and outside family (Masten & Reed,
2002; Ungar, et al., 2007; Zakeri, Jowkar, & Razmjoee, 2010; Ungar, 2016).
Parenting style is one of the most important external determinants of
resilience within the family (Masten & Reed,
2002) and it is seen that though assets and resources that help youth in
overcoming adversities may differ, parental factors are critical and consistent
resources for young individuals (Fergus &
Zimmerman, 2005). The present study tries to focus on the role of parenting
style as a predictor of resilience.

Parenting comprises all the activities of the
parents aimed at their children’s wellbeing. One of the most important approaches
in understanding parental impact on human development is concept of parenting
style. Baumrind in 1967 (As cited in Gafoor
& Kurukkan, 2014)) introduced four types of parenting styles namely
authoritative parenting, authoritarian parenting, permissive parenting and
negligent parenting. Based on this Maccoby and Martin (1983) put forward a
conceptual model and they explained parenting style as combinations of varying
levels of parental demandingness and responsiveness. Parental responsiveness is
about supportiveness, warmth or acceptance whereas parental demandingness is
about control, strict rules or disciplinary efforts. Based on whether a parent
is high or low on responsiveness or control results in four styles of
parenting: authoritarian, authoritative, indulgent and uninvolved (Maccoby&
Martin, 1983).

Positive family climate with low discord between
parents, organized home environment, authoritative parenting and close
relationships with caregiving adults are resources within a family better
mental health of children. Supporting, understanding, warm and child-centred
parenting style is found to be associated with the development of resilience
and hence it can be regarded as an asset or protective factor that can enhance
the ability to overcome stressful life events. These parents show more
unanimity and understanding relative to their children’s needs; therefore
parents foster children to be strong in stressful life conditions by establishing
a positive and close relationship with them and thus increasing resilience in
children (Masten& Reed, 2002; Hill, Stafford, Seaman, Ross, & Daniel,
2007; Zakeri, Jowkar, & Razmjoee, 2010).The
authoritative parenting style, which involves warmth and responsiveness, has
been related consistently to positive developmental outcomes, including fewer
behavioural problems and psychological symptoms. The authoritarian parenting
style, in contrast, involves a low degree of responsiveness and high level of
demandingness. Authoritarian parents are often cold, unsupportive, insensitive
to their children’s needs, and demanding in their control (Badgujar & Mundada, 2014). This parenting
style is related to less resilience and more depression and anxiety in
comparison with other parenting styles (Mohammadi,
Samavi, & Abdollah, 2013; Zhong, et al., 2016).

There are many other factors linked to positive
parenting style that directly or indirectly contribute to resilience in
children. Parental acceptance is
related to good emotional intelligence (Gunjan,
2012) and adolescent’s positive
mental health (Sharma, 2013). Adolescents with high parenting style and
whose parents monitor their activities adjust better in society than those with
low parenting styles. Adolescents perceiving parental acceptance or those with
authoritative parenting style have better self-esteem (Zakeri, 2011;
Sharma & Pandey, 2015; Deshpande
& Chabbriya, 2013), betterself-concept
(Badgujar & Mundada, 2014) and more self-confidence (Jassar, 2014).

            Study of resilience has always
focused on protective factors whether it is individual or environmental
factors. This is important to understand why some people function better than
others in times of adversities. The present study tries to explore the role of
perceived parenting on resilience in higher secondary school students.

 

Method

Participants – Participants
include 300 higher secondary school students of the age group 15-17 taken
through simple random sampling from government and government aided schools in
Kerala. After taking prior permission from school authorities and informed
consent from each student, instruments for data collection were given to
students in a group with clear instructions.

Instruments

1.      Demographic
sheet to understand various demographic factors such as gender, age, religion,
stream of education, academic achievement, educational qualification of
parents, occupation of parents, participation in extracurricular activities,
etc.

2.      Scale
of Parenting Style (Gafoor & Kurukkan, 2014)

It is a 38 item 5-point
Likert scale ranging from 5 (“very true”) to 1(very wrong) measuring perceived
parenting styles of adolescents with a score range 190 to 38.  It consists of two subscales parental
responsiveness and control. It has two separate scores for father and mother as
well as total parental responsiveness and control. A parent rated as high in
both responsiveness and control (above the median), he is categorized as
authoritative parent. A parent rated as low in both responsiveness and control
(below the median) is categorized as negligent parent. A parent who is rated as
high in responsiveness and low in control is categorized as indulgent parent. A
parent who is rated as low in responsiveness and high in control is categorized
as authoritarian parent. The scale has construct validity in relation to
parenting style by Baumrind (1967). Criterion related validity is also
established with validity coefficient 0.80 for responsiveness and 0.76 for
control subscale. The test was standardised for the purpose of research and the
test-retest coefficient of reliability of responsiveness variable in the scale
is 0.81 and for control it is 0.83.The test was re-standardised for the purpose
of research in the local setting and the split half reliability was found to be
0.76

3.      Connor-Davidson’s
resilience scale (CD- RISC)

The CD-RISC is a 25
item scale developed by Connor and Davidson (2003) to measure resilience. It is
a five point Likert scale ranging from 0 (“not true at all”) to 4 (“true nearly
all the time”), with a total score range from 0 to 100. Malayalam version of
CD-RISC was used. It has a test-retest reliability coefficient of 0.87.

 

Results
and Discussion

Table 1

ANOVA
between Perceived Parenting Styles- Authoritative, Authoritarian, Permissive
and Negligent on Resilience of Children

Resilience

SS

df

MS

F

Between Groups

5154.72

3

1718.24

7.68**

Within Groups

63347.96

283

223.84

 

Total

68502.68

286

 

 

 ** Significance at 0.01 level

 

Table 1 shows the ANOVA results for resilience and
different types of parenting styles and a significant difference was observed
in resilience of children based on perceived parenting style. Post hoc reveals
that children who perceived parenting as authoritative and authoritarian showed
more resilience when compared to children with negligent parenting style. But no
significant difference was observed in resilience between permissive and other
types of parenting styles. Warmth, supporting, and child-centred parenting
style is associated with the development of resilience and therefore, could be
regarded as a protective factor that may increase the ability to overcome
negative life events and crisis (Zakeri, Jowkar,
& Razmjoee, 2010). Also positive parenting is related to better
self-esteem, self-confidence, self-concept, emotional intelligence, adjustment
and good mental health which all may act as contributors of better resilience.
All these qualities along with parental monitoring and feeling of acceptance
help children fight and overcome adversities in life instead of becoming
passive recipients of faith. In the present study children who perceive
parenting as authoritarian style also show more resilience when compared to
children with negligent parenting style which is contradicting with many other
research findings that authoritarian parenting is related to less resilience (Mohammadi, Samavi, & Abdollah, 2013; Zhong, et
al., 2016).This might be because in a collectivistic culture like India
unlike individualistic cultures authoritarian parenting may be perceived as
normative and does not always imply parental negativity.  So higher levels of authoritarian style of
parenting found in cultures that emphasize collectivism do not necessarily point
to a low level of parental concern and love for children, nor are they as
harmful as similarly high levels of authoritarian parenting in parents from Western
cultural groups. Also in individualistic culture authoritarian parenting may be
a result of negative feelings towards the child but in a collectivistic culture
parents use authoritarianism to instil collectivistic values and respect which
is usually perceived as normative (Rudy &
Grusec, 2006).

Conclusions

The present study concludes that perceived parenting
style is an important determinant of resilience and positive parenting
contributes to better resilience in adolescents. Therefore enhancing resilience
in children which is an important focus of primary prevention should consider
family relationship and parenting pattern as important protective factors.