Introduction at par with Mughal cities, since

Introduction :The capital of the largest state of Rajasthan, known as the “Pink City of India” – Jaipur is a land of Royals and Elegance, where its heritage lives in the culture and splendid Architecture. It is a flawless fusion of history and modernity and a visionary model for town planning.Context and RegionalismThe city of Jaipur was established in 1727 by Maharaja Jaisingh, as the new capital of kachwaha Dynasty. It was revolutionary both in terms of its Planning and its strategic location and was modelled on the principles of Vastu-Shastra – Hindu Architectural Theory.Political Agenda :• Jaipur evolved due to lack of availability of space in the earlier capital Amber which was built on the hill in Dhoondhar district.• It was envisioned as an alternative power base, and a strong political statement at par with Mughal cities, since it was pre- colonial in inception.• Envisioned as a flourishing trade centre and commerce hub for the region – to cater to the period of rapid economic and political change.Natural setting: Pre-existing features of site played a major role in shaping of city.• The site chosen was a valley located south of Amber, which was bounded by horse shoe shaped Nahargarh hilly ranges on the North east and North west covered with dense forests.• This rocky terrain allowed expansion only in the south direction gave natural protection for military reasons and the hills ensured a constant supply of building material for construction.• The presence of perennial stream gave adequate drinking water supply and the natural slope ensured a good drainage system.Connectivity :The old city was located strategically along the road that ran East-West between Mughal Cities of Agra and Ajmer, placing it on already established communication line for its economic success. On the other axis on North-South linking the capital Amber to Sanganer, the principal trading town.Evolution of the city: Cosmic City Model• Jaipur’s plan was based on Vastu-shastra which specifies that greater benefits of prosperity can be achieved by creating environment which is in perfect equilibrium with natural forces. Mandala and Prastara pattern (whichSOUMYA. P. S | M-ARCH-I SEM | RVCAgives prominence to the cardinal directions. Land being flat made the layout of streets regular. Its orientation was based on direction of wind, light, sun and moon, to ensure purity of streets.• Hierarchy of roads:• The medieval city of Jaipur is a grid of 3×3 with gridlines being the city’s main streets ‘Rajmarg’ connected the central palace to the 7 city gateways. 33m wide 16.5m wide which runs north-south in each sector linking the internal areas of the sectors to the major activity spine.• Main streets – 111ft. wide,secondary and tertiary streets – 55 ft. wide, 27ft. wide respectively• Plots are always kept in proportion with respect to hierarchy of roads.During British rule, unlike other cities, the relationship with the central power was more subtle.Planners like BV Doshi and Charles Correa have made significant contributions to the city by their post-modern ideas. Vidhyadhar nagar – a satellite city to Jaipur is one such example. (1986)Recently the growth has occurred along the major transportation routes which have further given rise to suburban layouts. Jaipur is linked to Delhi, Mumbai, Ahmedabad, Agra and Bhopal through four to six lane highways.Major economic drivers: With its unique arts and crafts, colorful lifestyle and excellent hospitality – Jaipur is an enthralling tourist destination today forming a part of Golden Triangle.Other than tourism, there are 19 well-developed industrial areas housing 19,544 small scale and 50 medium and large scale units.Parallels drawn from Planning theories, to describe Jaipur’s evolution:Lewis Mumford’s theory: In today’s context, Jaipur is defined by its living culture and history which changed gradually through modern technological influences but with the retention of original identity. This fact relates to the theory proposed by Lewis Mumford in his book “The city in History”. He quotes that “culture is not suppressed by technological innovation but rather thrives with it.”Place theory: The presence of historic buildings creates small and large spaces in and around these monuments that gives the place a sense of identity and add legibility for mental mapping. They add richness to the place which in turn creates a sense of belonging among the people. The place theory adds the components of human needs and cultural, historical, and natural contexts.Jaipur, was planned based on natural elements and cosmic forces unlike the other cities which are planned based on mere industrial needs of the 19th century. Thus theories proposed by Chicago school of sociology does not hold true.Kevin Lynch’s elements: Kevin Lynch’s mapping of the city based on memory for Jaipur reveals essentially the most memorable parts of the city which contribute to image building.SOUMYA. P. S | M-ARCH-I SEM | RVCA• Path: At a neighborhood level path is basically – nucleus and its cardinal directions forming axial routes, repeating in regular grids.• Nodes: Since the major highways connecting Ajmer, Delhi and Agra, cuts across the city, there are a set of primary nodes which connect these highways to the sub-arterial roads.• Edges: The city is bounded by the Nahargarh hills and the major lake of Mansagar, in the West; they act as the main edge. Large and small agricultural and industrial belts are the other edges. The city has secondary edges which include city palace, and series of gardens.• Landmark: The city’s identity is strongly reflected because of the presence of old and new landmarks. Most of the influential and monumental scale landmarks are situated in the old part of the city. The most recent major addition to Jaipur’s architectural fabric is the vast new Vidhan Sabha, an assembly building for Rajasthan’s regional government legislators (2001).Other similar cities with grid iron street network:1. Chang’an – the modern day Syan in China2. Street grid – San Francisco3. Post-modernist urban form – Chandigarh4. Indus valley civilization- Layout of Dholavira citadel5. Medieval town plan of JaisalmerConclusion: Unlike many historic towns in the world, Jaipur is functioning well in present urban context. The city has sustained many cultural, social and economic changes. And this proves the robustness and resilience of these age-old systems.The Landuse, Circulations, Economy, Professions, Caste system were well organised and distributed along the streets.The boundary which was once defined by high fortification walls and gateways have now vastly extended into municipal jurisdiction of 3000 sq. km housing 725 villages.