It’s beautifying or altering appearance, and enhancing

It’s
probably on your face or in your body right now, it’s definitely somewhere in
your home you can’t see it, but it’s there just the same.1 It is
nanotechnology and it is more prevalent in our day-to-day lives that we might
think this quote by Brindy McNair.2 The US FDA defines cosmetics by
their intended use, as articles intended to be rubbed, poured, sprinkled, or
sprayed on, introduced into, or otherwise applied to the human body for
cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance3
Cosmetics have become an important part of our daily life: from the use of deodorant
and shampoo, to skin-care products and perfumes. Personal hygiene and beauty
products are considered to be essentials today as are health-related products
like sunscreens and decay-fighting toothpaste.4 Today, consumers
worldwide are looking for personal-care products that supply multiple benefits
with minimal efforts. Not only women but there are also increasing number of
males who are using cosmetics usually to enhance their own facial features.
Cosmetics are products that are created for application on the body for the
purpose of cleansing, beautifying or altering appearance, and enhancing attractive
features. Cosmetics are substances used to enhance the appearance or odor of
the human body.5 Cosmetic pharmaceuticals, or cosmeceuticals, are
cosmetic products that contain biologically active ingredients and claim to
have medicinal or drug-like benefits. Like cosmetics, cosmeceuticals are
topically applied, but they contain ingredients that influence the biological
function of the skin.6 Raymond Reed, founding member of the US
Society of Cosmetic Chemists, coined the term in 1961,7 as health
products nearly 46 years ago with liposome moisturizing creams. Nanotechnology
is most often described as the manufacture and manipulation of purpose-made
structures having  100 nm diameter. A cosmetic
product shall mean any substance or mixture intended to be placed in contact
with the various external parts of the human body (epidermis, hair system,
nails, lips, and external genital organs) or with the teeth and the mucous
membranes of the oral cavity with a view exclusively or mainly to cleaning
them, perfuming them, changing their appearance and keeping them in good
condition.”8 Almost all the major cosmetic manufacturers use
nanomaterial in their products. L’Oréal has a number of nanotechnology related
products in the market and ranks sixth in the United States in the number of
nanotech-related patents in the United States. The European Commission
estimated in 2006, that 5% of cosmetic products contained nanoparticles.9
The cosmetics industry therefore uses nanodispersion in the form of encapsulation
or carrier systemsso that agents penetrate into deeper skin layers.10

Like
other sectors, the cosmetics industry resorts to developments in the field of
nanotechnologies. The applications of nanotechnology and nanomaterials can be
found in many cosmetic products including moisturizers, hair-care products,
make-up, and sunscreen. Nanomaterials are now being used in leading cosmetic
products, most commonly as chemicals used to give the protection in sunscreens.
Encapsulation and carrier systems like liposomes, nanoemulsions (NEs),
microemulsions, or lipid nanoparticles serve to transport agents to deeper skin
layers. Nanoparticles of titanium dioxide and zinc oxide are used as UV filters
in sunscreens.11 Liposomes and niosomes are also used in the
cosmetic industry as delivery vehicles. Newer structures such as solid lipid
nanoparticles (SLNs) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) have been found to
be better performers than liposomes. In particular, NLCs have been identified
as a potential next-generation cosmetic delivery agent that can provide
enhanced skin hydration, bioavailability, stability of the agent, and
controlled occlusion. Encapsulation techniques have been proposed for carrying cosmetic
actives. Nanocrystals and NEs are also being investigated for cosmetic
applications. Other novel materials, such as fullerene, have also appeared in a
small number of beauty products. . Recently, nanotechnology is emerging in the
field of cosmetics and dermal preparations as it offers a revolutionize
treatment of several skin diseases.5 It is proved effective in
attaining safe and targeted delivery of active medicaments as well cosmetic
ingredients. Use of carrier system in nanotechnology has added advantage of
improved skin penetration, depot effect with sustained release drug action.

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Nanotechnology
has found wide applications in diverse commercial products (cosmetics, paints,
coasting, textiles, etc.) and industrial applications, and this trend is
expected to continue into the future. While the benefits of nanotechnology are
beyond debate, concurrently to its growth, there are increasing concerns raised
regarding safety and environmental impacts of this rapidly emerging technology.
Thus, novel cosmaceutical delivery systems reviewed here possess enormous
potential as next-generation smarter carrier systems.12

 

·        
The functions and benefits of these “encapsulation and
carrier systems” are Protection
of sensitive agents;

·        
 Controlled
release effect;

·        
Reduction in the amount of agents and additives;

·        
Longer shelf life and hence greater product
effectiveness.13

In
cosmetics, there are currently two main uses for nanotechnology. The first is
the use of nanoparticles as UV filters. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc
oxide (ZnO) are the main compounds used in these applications and organic
alternatives to these have also been developed. The second use is
nanotechnology for delivery. Liposomes and niosomes are used in the cosmetic
industry as delivery vehicles. Newer structures such as SLNs and NLCs have been
found to be better performers than liposomes. Nanocrystals, microemulsions, NEs,
and dendrimers are also being investigated for cosmetic applications. . Below,
we discuss different nanoparticulate drug delivery system used in cosmetics.14

 

13.2 EMULSIONS

Emulsions
are the most common type of delivery system used in cosmetics. They enable a
wide variety of ingredients to be quickly and conveniently delivered to hair
and skin. The best known cosmetic products based on emulsions are creams and
lotions.. Emulsion technology continues to expand and the introduction of new
w/o emulsifiers which give elegant products without the inherent greasy feel,
etc., is of interest to the whole industry.15

Following
are the different emulsion delivery systems used in cosmetics.

 

13.2.1 Microemulsion

Microemulsions
are isotropic, thermodynamically stable transparent (or translucent) systems of
oil, water, and surfactant, frequently in combination with a cosurfactant and with
a droplet size usually in the range of 10–200 nm.16

 

Microemulsions
represent a promising carrier system for cosmetic active ingredients due to
their numerous advantages over the existing conventional formulations. Microemulsion
appears to be promising as efficient delivery systems for the cosmetic agents. They
are capable of solubilizing both hydrophilic and lipophilic ingredients with
relatively higher encapsulation. There is growing recognition of their
potential benefits in the field of cosmetic science in addition to the drug
delivery. They are now being widely investigated for preparing personal-care
products with superior features such as having improved product efficiency,
stability, or appearance.17 They are well suited for the preparation
of various cosmetic products for use as moisturizing and soothing agents, as
sunscreens, as antiperspirants and as body cleansing agents. They are also
valuable for use in hair-care compositions which ensure a good conditioning of
the hair as well as good hair feel and hair gloss.18 and  found wide application in after shave
formulations which upon application to the skin provide reduced stinging and
irritation and a comforting effect without tackiness. These newer formulations
elicit very good cosmetic attributes and high hydration properties with rapid
cutaneous penetration which may accentuate their role in topical products.
These smart systems are also suitable for perfuming purposes where minimum
amount of organic solvents is required, such as for perfuming skin or hair.
This chapter highlights the recent innovations in the field of microemulsion
technology as claimed by different patents which can bring unique products with
great commercial prospects in a very competitive and lucrative global cosmetic
market.19

Products
consisting of these systems are valued for their stability and small particle
size, which affords microemulsions special consideration in the market place.
They can be used to improve both the performance of presently used cosmetic
active ingredients and the commercial “appeal” of the product.

Since
microemulsions were discovered approximately six decades ago, their
applications in several fields, including cosmetics, have been increased due to
their good appearance, thermodynamic stability, high solubilization power, and
ease of preparation. In addition, microemulsions can enhance skin permeation of
the loaded substances. They are classified into three types: oil-in-water,
bicontinuous, and water-in-oil (W/O). All types of microemulsions can be formed
spontaneously when the ratios of oil, water, and surfactant in the systems are
appropriate.20 These proper ratios can be found in a microemulsion
region of a phase diagram. The efficiency of microemulsions in topical
application is related to microemulsion type. Microemulsion characterization
needs a combination of the data from several experimental techniques. Numerous
applications of cosmetic microemulsions include skin-care, hair-care, and
personal-care products for improving the product efficiency and stability.
Moreover, new materials have been developed to be used in cosmetic
microemulsion formulations for increasing the product efficiency and reducing
the toxicity.21

 

13.2.2 Nanoemulsion

NEs
can be defined as “ultrafine emulsions” because of the formation of droplets in
the submicron range. The average droplet size of NEs has been ranging from 50
to 1000 nm. NEs have recently become increasingly important as potential
vehicles for the controlled delivery of cosmetics and for the optimized dispersion
of active ingredients in particular skin layers.

NEs have recently become increasingly important
as potential vehicles for the controlled delivery of cosmetics and for the
optimized dispersion of active ingredients in particular skin layers. Due to
their lipophilic interior, NEs are more suitable for the transport of
lipophilic compounds than liposomes. They have attracted considerable attention
in recent years for application in personal-care products as potential vehicles
for the controlled delivery of cosmetics. Several cosmetic products are available
that use NEs, including Korres’ Red Vine Hair sunscreen. Several companies
supply ready to use emulsifiers for creating stable NEs for cosmetic applications,
including Nano cream® from Sinerga and Nano Gel from Kemira.22,23
NEs are transparent due to the droplets tiny size and they also remain stable
for a longer period of time. They are mostly used in deodorants, sunscreens,
shampoos, and skin and hair-care products. The NEs are easily valued in skin
care because of their good sensorial properties,  such as  rapid penetration, merging textures and their
biophysical properties especially, hydrating power. A significant improvement
in dry hair aspect (after several shampoos) is obtained with a prolonged effect
after a cationic NE use and hair becomes more fluid and shiny, less brittle,
and nongreasy. Yamazaki et al. provided new W/O emulsion-type nail enamel using
human sections, a series of model experiments were performed confirming that
moisture is essentialIt’s
probably on your face or in your body right now, it’s definitely somewhere in
your home you can’t see it, but it’s there just the same.1 It is
nanotechnology and it is more prevalent in our day-to-day lives that we might
think this quote by Brindy McNair.2 The US FDA defines cosmetics by
their intended use, as articles intended to be rubbed, poured, sprinkled, or
sprayed on, introduced into, or otherwise applied to the human body for
cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance3
Cosmetics have become an important part of our daily life: from the use of deodorant
and shampoo, to skin-care products and perfumes. Personal hygiene and beauty
products are considered to be essentials today as are health-related products
like sunscreens and decay-fighting toothpaste.4 Today, consumers
worldwide are looking for personal-care products that supply multiple benefits
with minimal efforts. Not only women but there are also increasing number of
males who are using cosmetics usually to enhance their own facial features.
Cosmetics are products that are created for application on the body for the
purpose of cleansing, beautifying or altering appearance, and enhancing attractive
features. Cosmetics are substances used to enhance the appearance or odor of
the human body.5 Cosmetic pharmaceuticals, or cosmeceuticals, are
cosmetic products that contain biologically active ingredients and claim to
have medicinal or drug-like benefits. Like cosmetics, cosmeceuticals are
topically applied, but they contain ingredients that influence the biological
function of the skin.6 Raymond Reed, founding member of the US
Society of Cosmetic Chemists, coined the term in 1961,7 as health
products nearly 46 years ago with liposome moisturizing creams. Nanotechnology
is most often described as the manufacture and manipulation of purpose-made
structures having  100 nm diameter. A cosmetic
product shall mean any substance or mixture intended to be placed in contact
with the various external parts of the human body (epidermis, hair system,
nails, lips, and external genital organs) or with the teeth and the mucous
membranes of the oral cavity with a view exclusively or mainly to cleaning
them, perfuming them, changing their appearance and keeping them in good
condition.”8 Almost all the major cosmetic manufacturers use
nanomaterial in their products. L’Oréal has a number of nanotechnology related
products in the market and ranks sixth in the United States in the number of
nanotech-related patents in the United States. The European Commission
estimated in 2006, that 5% of cosmetic products contained nanoparticles.9
The cosmetics industry therefore uses nanodispersion in the form of encapsulation
or carrier systemsso that agents penetrate into deeper skin layers.10

Like
other sectors, the cosmetics industry resorts to developments in the field of
nanotechnologies. The applications of nanotechnology and nanomaterials can be
found in many cosmetic products including moisturizers, hair-care products,
make-up, and sunscreen. Nanomaterials are now being used in leading cosmetic
products, most commonly as chemicals used to give the protection in sunscreens.
Encapsulation and carrier systems like liposomes, nanoemulsions (NEs),
microemulsions, or lipid nanoparticles serve to transport agents to deeper skin
layers. Nanoparticles of titanium dioxide and zinc oxide are used as UV filters
in sunscreens.11 Liposomes and niosomes are also used in the
cosmetic industry as delivery vehicles. Newer structures such as solid lipid
nanoparticles (SLNs) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) have been found to
be better performers than liposomes. In particular, NLCs have been identified
as a potential next-generation cosmetic delivery agent that can provide
enhanced skin hydration, bioavailability, stability of the agent, and
controlled occlusion. Encapsulation techniques have been proposed for carrying cosmetic
actives. Nanocrystals and NEs are also being investigated for cosmetic
applications. Other novel materials, such as fullerene, have also appeared in a
small number of beauty products. . Recently, nanotechnology is emerging in the
field of cosmetics and dermal preparations as it offers a revolutionize
treatment of several skin diseases.5 It is proved effective in
attaining safe and targeted delivery of active medicaments as well cosmetic
ingredients. Use of carrier system in nanotechnology has added advantage of
improved skin penetration, depot effect with sustained release drug action.

Nanotechnology
has found wide applications in diverse commercial products (cosmetics, paints,
coasting, textiles, etc.) and industrial applications, and this trend is
expected to continue into the future. While the benefits of nanotechnology are
beyond debate, concurrently to its growth, there are increasing concerns raised
regarding safety and environmental impacts of this rapidly emerging technology.
Thus, novel cosmaceutical delivery systems reviewed here possess enormous
potential as next-generation smarter carrier systems.12

 

·        
The functions and benefits of these “encapsulation and
carrier systems” are Protection
of sensitive agents;

·        
 Controlled
release effect;

·        
Reduction in the amount of agents and additives;

·        
Longer shelf life and hence greater product
effectiveness.13

In
cosmetics, there are currently two main uses for nanotechnology. The first is
the use of nanoparticles as UV filters. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc
oxide (ZnO) are the main compounds used in these applications and organic
alternatives to these have also been developed. The second use is
nanotechnology for delivery. Liposomes and niosomes are used in the cosmetic
industry as delivery vehicles. Newer structures such as SLNs and NLCs have been
found to be better performers than liposomes. Nanocrystals, microemulsions, NEs,
and dendrimers are also being investigated for cosmetic applications. . Below,
we discuss different nanoparticulate drug delivery system used in cosmetics.14

 

13.2 EMULSIONS

Emulsions
are the most common type of delivery system used in cosmetics. They enable a
wide variety of ingredients to be quickly and conveniently delivered to hair
and skin. The best known cosmetic products based on emulsions are creams and
lotions.. Emulsion technology continues to expand and the introduction of new
w/o emulsifiers which give elegant products without the inherent greasy feel,
etc., is of interest to the whole industry.15

Following
are the different emulsion delivery systems used in cosmetics.

 

13.2.1 Microemulsion

Microemulsions
are isotropic, thermodynamically stable transparent (or translucent) systems of
oil, water, and surfactant, frequently in combination with a cosurfactant and with
a droplet size usually in the range of 10–200 nm.16

 

Microemulsions
represent a promising carrier system for cosmetic active ingredients due to
their numerous advantages over the existing conventional formulations. Microemulsion
appears to be promising as efficient delivery systems for the cosmetic agents. They
are capable of solubilizing both hydrophilic and lipophilic ingredients with
relatively higher encapsulation. There is growing recognition of their
potential benefits in the field of cosmetic science in addition to the drug
delivery. They are now being widely investigated for preparing personal-care
products with superior features such as having improved product efficiency,
stability, or appearance.17 They are well suited for the preparation
of various cosmetic products for use as moisturizing and soothing agents, as
sunscreens, as antiperspirants and as body cleansing agents. They are also
valuable for use in hair-care compositions which ensure a good conditioning of
the hair as well as good hair feel and hair gloss.18 and  found wide application in after shave
formulations which upon application to the skin provide reduced stinging and
irritation and a comforting effect without tackiness. These newer formulations
elicit very good cosmetic attributes and high hydration properties with rapid
cutaneous penetration which may accentuate their role in topical products.
These smart systems are also suitable for perfuming purposes where minimum
amount of organic solvents is required, such as for perfuming skin or hair.
This chapter highlights the recent innovations in the field of microemulsion
technology as claimed by different patents which can bring unique products with
great commercial prospects in a very competitive and lucrative global cosmetic
market.19

Products
consisting of these systems are valued for their stability and small particle
size, which affords microemulsions special consideration in the market place.
They can be used to improve both the performance of presently used cosmetic
active ingredients and the commercial “appeal” of the product.

Since
microemulsions were discovered approximately six decades ago, their
applications in several fields, including cosmetics, have been increased due to
their good appearance, thermodynamic stability, high solubilization power, and
ease of preparation. In addition, microemulsions can enhance skin permeation of
the loaded substances. They are classified into three types: oil-in-water,
bicontinuous, and water-in-oil (W/O). All types of microemulsions can be formed
spontaneously when the ratios of oil, water, and surfactant in the systems are
appropriate.20 These proper ratios can be found in a microemulsion
region of a phase diagram. The efficiency of microemulsions in topical
application is related to microemulsion type. Microemulsion characterization
needs a combination of the data from several experimental techniques. Numerous
applications of cosmetic microemulsions include skin-care, hair-care, and
personal-care products for improving the product efficiency and stability.
Moreover, new materials have been developed to be used in cosmetic
microemulsion formulations for increasing the product efficiency and reducing
the toxicity.21

 

13.2.2 Nanoemulsion

NEs
can be defined as “ultrafine emulsions” because of the formation of droplets in
the submicron range. The average droplet size of NEs has been ranging from 50
to 1000 nm. NEs have recently become increasingly important as potential
vehicles for the controlled delivery of cosmetics and for the optimized dispersion
of active ingredients in particular skin layers.

NEs have recently become increasingly important
as potential vehicles for the controlled delivery of cosmetics and for the
optimized dispersion of active ingredients in particular skin layers. Due to
their lipophilic interior, NEs are more suitable for the transport of
lipophilic compounds than liposomes. They have attracted considerable attention
in recent years for application in personal-care products as potential vehicles
for the controlled delivery of cosmetics. Several cosmetic products are available
that use NEs, including Korres’ Red Vine Hair sunscreen. Several companies
supply ready to use emulsifiers for creating stable NEs for cosmetic applications,
including Nano cream® from Sinerga and Nano Gel from Kemira.22,23
NEs are transparent due to the droplets tiny size and they also remain stable
for a longer period of time. They are mostly used in deodorants, sunscreens,
shampoos, and skin and hair-care products. The NEs are easily valued in skin
care because of their good sensorial properties,  such as  rapid penetration, merging textures and their
biophysical properties especially, hydrating power. A significant improvement
in dry hair aspect (after several shampoos) is obtained with a prolonged effect
after a cationic NE use and hair becomes more fluid and shiny, less brittle,
and nongreasy. Yamazaki et al. provided new W/O emulsion-type nail enamel using
human sections, a series of model experiments were performed confirming that
moisture is essential