Pollution at the time when smelting of


Introduction of pollution

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          Pollution is defined as
any undesirable changes in the physical, chemical or biological characteristics
of the natural environment. Pollution was little at the time when smelting of
metal was introduced by a small population of human. As the human population
increases, the pollution caused by humans also increases as the demands of
humans increases. There are several types of pollution which are air pollution,
water pollution, thermal pollution, noise pollution, light pollution and
radiation pollution.

Air pollution

         Air pollution is mainly
caused by the burning of the fossil fuels. During the time of Industrial
Revolution, machines are common to use for producing a lot of product in a
shorter duration compared to handwork. However, machine required fuel to
function and this will result in air pollution. Nowadays, the burning of fossil
fuel is still continuously and increasing. Electricity that is important to us
is produced by the burning of the fuels like coal, petroleum and natural gas in
the power station. The fossil fuels that are burnt in the power station are
also contributed for the internal combustion engines of vehicles. As an
example, cars and other gasoline vehicle will burn 14million gallons of fuel
per hour in North America. As a result, air pollution mostly appear from the
automobiles, woodland hearth occurrences, solid waste deposits and various
wastes from the economic outlets. When fossil fuels are burnt, the element in
the fuels are oxidized to form various air pollutants, for example, carbon
dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, oxide of nitrogen ( nitrogen monoxide, and nitrogen dioxide ), smog and fine particular
matter. The existing of these gases that are in excess in the surrounding will result
in air pollution.

         Carbon dioxide is one of
the greenhouse gases that it only allows the entry of sunlight into the
atmosphere but not exit the atmosphere, causing the warming up of the Earth. It
results in greenhouse effect and global warming. Carbon monoxide is a poisonous
gas that will compete with oxygen to bind with the haemoglobin. Instead of the
formation of oxyhaemoglobin, carboxyhaemoglobin will be formed. The reduction
in the amount of oxyhaemoglobin reduces the supply of oxygen to the body.
Sulphur dioxide can react with water vapour and form sulphuric acid that can
irritate the eyes, cause bronchitis , asthmatic attacks and result in the
formation of acid rain. Oxides of nitrogen will also have the same effects as
the sulphur dioxide that is irritate eyes and formation of acid rain. Nitrogen
monoxide and nitrogen dioxide can irritate the lungs and cause bronchitis. Lead
that produced by the burning of the fossil fuels can cause damage to the liver
and mental development to be retarded. Some tiny particles like soot or dust
will block sunlight and get into our respiratory system during inhalation
process. Combination of smoke and fog, known as smog can causes irritation to
our eyes, nose, throat and lungs. Smog can be experienced in large cities such
as Los Angeles and New York. ( Figure 5.0 shown in Appendices 5 )

         There are several harmful
effects of air pollution. First of all, it leads to the damaged of our
respiratory tract. Some air pollutants can do damaged to our nerves, heart,
liver and kidneys. It will also causes irritation to our eyes and nose. Besides
that, air pollutants such as smog can reduce our visibility by absorbing light
in the air. The amount of daylight that is able to penetrate the
water highly reduce by the air pollutants. This will affect the growth of
phytoplankton and microbes and disrupt the food chain.

         There are several ways
that can minimize air pollution. A low volatile, that is with a low boiling
point coal can reduce the amount of the sulphur dioxide and smoke that are
released to the surrounding. The power station and industrial plants can be
clean up using scrubbers. To reduce the emission of sulphur dioxide, double
catalytic converters are used to double up the absorption process.

Water pollution

         Water wellsprings, for
example, rivers, streams and oceans are used to uproot wastes starting with
long time back. The sources of water contamination are untreated sewage,
household waste, agricultural run-off, creature waste, effluents starting with
commercial enterprises and underground channel. The presence of foreign waste
matter from all these sources of water pollution makes the water quality
poorer. The exist of all kind of germs can combine with poisonous materials
that contaminate the water.

          Untreated sewage and domestic
waste would be the primary reasons that cause eutrophication. Waste from oil
palm and rubber processing mills will release nitrate and phosphate that also
contribute to eutrophication. Besides, the intensive farming by human causes
the use of pesticides and fertilisers to be increased. Large usage of the
fertilisers will not all be absorbed by the plants. There will a chance to be
washed under stream and also river that contribute to the reason of
contamination of water. Pesticides that are used to kill pest will also be
washed into the river causing accumulation of toxic in the organisms if the
water is used as drinking water. Furthermore, the animal waste found in the
water contains a certain amount of microorganisms that can contaminate drinking
water. As a result, water-borne disease such as cholera will be spread widely
among human. ( Figure 5.1 shown in Appendices 5 ) Next, the effluents from the
commercial enterprises can release heavy metal profoundly dangerous and collect
in organic entities through natural way of life. Moreover, oil spills from the ocean-based
sources like cruise ship into the ocean is one of the sources that cause water
pollution. In 1975, the National Academy of Sciences found that 14
billion pounds of rubbish are thrown into the seas. Lastly, the underground pipe contains lead
that can damage the liver and retard mental development.

There are several effects of water pollution. Insecticides can damage
our nerve cells and are the reason of most cancer due to the present of
carbonates and organophosphates. Chloride can motive reproductive
and endocrinal harm. Nitrates can be harmful to infants that
drink formulation milk as it reduces the supply of oxygen to the
mind. Fluorides can cause yellowish in our teeth and harm our spinal cord. The
risk of drinking contaminated water is highly increased as there is more
pollution. Contaminated water is unsuitable for drinking purposes or any
general use purposes.

           Ways to reduce water pollution is to
have various tolerance limits for the discharge of the household waste into the
rivers and seas and the discharge of the effluent from the industries. According
to the Bureau of Indian Standards, there are tolerance limits for various
effluents. ( Figure 5.2 shown in Appendices 5 ). Sewage treatments are carried
out to safeguard the water wellspring from pollution.   



           Thermal pollution is the released of
the excessive heat into the surroundings. The sources of thermal pollution are
grass building and the discharge of hot water from factories, electric power
station and nuclear reactors.

           The causes of thermal
pollution is from the discharge of the hot water into nearby rivers, lakes or
streams by the industrial processes and the cooling towers of electrical power
station which use water as a cooling agent. Large amount of heat from the hot water
will result in thermal pollution. An increase in the temperature is obvious to
be seen and the oxygen now has a lower solubility in water. This will result in
the decrease of the oxygen level. Usually, five to ten degree Celsius of the
water temperature will be raised. Most of the marine life will die due to the
sudden increased in the temperature. This will affect the whole food chain and
affect the world population. On the other hand, the decomposition process will
increase due to the increase in the temperature. Therefore, the BOD level
increases and lead to the death of marine lives. If the temperature does not
decrease and remain over a long period, the species composition of marine lives
will have a permanent change which is a type of mutation.

           One of the effects of the thermal
pollution is the sunlight will be reflected from one tall building to another
tall building and the process continued. From there, the heat is trapped
between the glass building and warming the surrounding air. Usually, tall
buildings are found in the cities and therefore the temperature of the cities
will be slightly higher when compared to the countryside. The activities of the
microorganisms will be affected as they require optimal temperature for their
body metabolism to be carried out.

           There are ways to
prevent thermal pollution. The government should enforce stricter laws and
closers supervision of responsible parties that is the owners of the factories.
These owners should also be aware of the importance to protect the environment
from thermal pollution by control the amount of hoy water that is discharged
into the nearby rivers, lakes or streams. The use of machines that are using
water as the cooling agent must be highly reduced in amount so that thermal
pollution can be control.


Noise pollution

           Noise pollution is the
occurrence of too much noise in the surrounding that can disturb the comfort of
living by causing nuisance. The loudness of sound is measured using Decibel (
dB ) unit that represent the rate of sound energy passing through a unit area.
When the surrounding noise level reaches 80 dB or above, it will has am impact
on the health of human and leading to discomfort. According to World Health
Organisation ( WHO ), a noise level of 55dB or less is the range that is
comfort to human being.

           Numerous heavy
industrial vehicles and heavy machinery have all prompted wonderful noise pollution
in our environments. Road traffic and traffic emanating from rail and air all
have given rise to increasing noise degree which brings
about noise pollution. Besides,
the noise levels produced by aircraft and jet planes are so high also
contributed to noise pollution. Public transport like trains is one of the
sources of noise pollution. Noise pollution can also come from construction
sites where all the noisy construction work going on. Lastly, machines or the
gadget in factories are the alternative supply
of noise pollution. ( Figure 5.3 shown in Appendices 5 )

          Noise pollution has numerous intense effects
on human. First of all, loud noises can motive deafness or any hearing problems
that will lead to serious problems like failure to reply to emergencies. Loss
of hearing generally takes place gradually and the character may not be
conscious of it. Noise pollution can cause headache in us. Besides, it will
lead to disturbances in emotion and intellectual such as the disturbances in
our thinking and concentration of remark. We can feel the increasing heartbeat
due to noise pollution. Our respiration rate increases cause high blood
pressure as adrenaline is released. Finally, it also brings bad effects for
animal beside human. If they are facing noise pollution under long period, they
may act aggressively.  

           There are several ways
to reduce noise pollution. Make sure that the not-in-use home equipment or
appliances are switch off to reduce noise pollution besides saving electricity.
When we pay attention to music from audio system, try to lower the volume is
also efficient to reduce noise pollution. Lastly, we should have regular
maintenance of our cars or automobile and decrease the frequency of honking on
the roads.

Light pollution

           Light pollution is
immoderate and irrelevant artificial light. There are four components of light
pollution that are frequently mixed which are sky glow, glare, light trespass
and light clutter. Sky glow is the diffuse luminance of the night time sky
apart from discrete mild resources like moon or stars. Glare is the present of
light that causes us having difficulty in seeing. Light trespass is unwanted of
spill light. Light cutter is a bright, perplexing, and excessive light source, normally found in
over-lit urban areas.

           These components of
light pollution can bring numerous effects. First of all, Milky Way will be
disappeared from our view due to the sky glows that are in excess. Glare can
reduce our visibility and cause pain in our eyes. The presence of light
trespass like the unwanted spilling of light from the streetlight falling in
our houses will result in the loss of darkness and thus affecting our sleeping
at the night time. ( Figure 5.4 shown in Appendices 5 ) The combination of
clutters will leads to other components like sky glow, light trespass and

           Solutions to reduce
light pollution are turning off light when it is not necessary and update high-energy bulbs with CFLs and LED. It is not necessary to always
bring torchlights and switch it on although the natural light is bright enough.
We can always refer to the International
Dark-Sky Association that evaluates furnishings for low glare and
enterprise which includes Starry Night
Lights, which makes a
speciality of low-pollutants lighting

Radiation pollution

pollution is pollution from any form of ionizing or non-ionizing
radiation that is contributed from human activities. About twenty per cent of
the radiation is from the activities that we done which including mining, coping
with and processing of radioactive substances and managing and storage of radioactive waste. However, the most well-known or
common radiation are from the detonation of nuclear devices and the controlled
released of energy by nuclear-power generating plants.

           There are three types
of radiation pollution which are continuous radioactive pollution, occasional
radioactive pollution and accidental radioactive pollution. Continuous radioactive
pollution is from the sources like mining, nuclear-power generating plants and laboratories.
Occasional radioactive pollution takes place at
some point of nuclear checks or all
through experimental assessments on radioactive substances. Finally,
accidental radioactive pollution is one kind of pollution that happens when the
failure experiment that involved risking substances occurs.  The people who conduct the experiment are not
able to manage the situation and cause the leaking of the substances.

           Radiation pollution can
have several effects on our health. We will have a higher risk of getting all
type of cancer like lung cancer, thyroid cancer and skin cancer. Although one
does not smoke , he or she can have the risk of getting lung cancer if he or
she have a long exposure to radioactive gases like radon. Ultraviolet radiation
which is also a type of radiation can increase the risk of getting skin cancer
since the ozone layer is becoming thinner and thinner. Besides, exposure to radiation
for a long duration can lead to mutation in our generations if the mother is
pregnant on that time. Radiation will leads to the changing in genes of the
chromosome and cause the baby to be born with problems like mentally retarded.

           Radiation pollution can
be reduced through several ways. Laws should be reinforced to prevent radiation
pollution from getting more serious. Besides, there is federal agency responsible
for the regulation of radiation pollution like Nuclear Regulatory Commission (
NRC ). The responsible parties should carry out their role in having treatment
of the radiation waste and the most important is to prevent the released of
radiation that are having long half-lives.

           There are numerous ways
to reduce the exposure to radiation. If one is working in a place that is full
of radiation, he or she should be aware of the distance between him or her and
the materials that can give out radiation. We should always use a mask to protect
ourselves from the radiation to reduce the exposure of radiation.