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Razan TamimiDr. Suha HindiyehThe Sociology and Anthropology of Development1st Jan 2018The Extent of Modernization and Dependency Theories: Development Process in PalestineOn the discussion of International development, several theories have been emerged. “Modernization” and “Dependency” were dominant development theories in the 60’s and still until now. (Tipps. Dean 1). The result of applying these theories is dividing the world into three main groups. These groups are developed economies, in transition economies, and developing economies. Developed countries are taking the lead to help the developing countries to achieve a transformation in the development process. , imposing their countries historical development experiences. This is can be seen as Andre Gunder Frank wrote in his articles “the Development and Underdevelopment”, “most our theoretical categories and guides to development policy have been distilled exclusively from the historical experience of the European and North American advanced capitalist nations”(1). However, the validity of applying modernization and dependency theories on Palestine, following the path of the developed countries has an impact on the economic, politics, and society.Applying modernization and dependency theories on the Palestinian development process affect the economy. Modernization follows a specific paradigm in the development process, going from the agriculture society until reaching mass production and mass consumption stage (Rostow model). To achieve this stage, technology must be there. In the Palestinian situation, which is under Israeli occupation, applying this paradigm is not in the simplicity that it appears on. Being under Israeli occupation hinders the development process, putting the world in front of one question, is there real development under occupation? Economic growth is the main target in modernization theory, following a neoliberal thinking.  On the basis of modernization, countries’ backwardness is due to internal economic and cultural problems. The Palestinian economy did not take the chance to flourish since the British mandate. Israeli occupation is taking control over the natural resources and confiscates thousands of acres of the Palestinian lands. According to “Abeer Odeh” the minister of the Palestinian economy, the Israeli occupation is taking control over area C which represents 60% of the lands, taking control also over natural resources, and borders. Odeh clarifies in an TV interview with “Maan News” thatthese considered main serious obstacles face the development of Palestinian economy.  These two main production factors (land, natural resources) are in the hands of the Israeli occupation. The Palestinian economy is still based on producing basic products, which do not help in increasing the Palestinian savings. The political situation in Palestine reinforce the weakness of it is economy as there is a low percentage of investments in the West Bank, leading to have a high rate of unemployability between Palestinians.Dependency theory, on the other hand, relies on its analysis on having two kinds of countries. These countries are metropolis countries and satellite ones. Dependency is a situation in which economy of a certain country is conditioned by the development and the expansion of the other country, while the former is subjected. This can be seen as Frank depicts, “each national and local metropolis serves to impose and maintain the monopolistic structure and exploitive relationship of this system” (4).  In the case of Palestinian Israeli conflict, Israeli is metropolis and Palestine is the satellite on.  The Palestinian economy is dependent on the Israeli one. Both are going on a vicious cycle. This can be seen as Israeli occupation taking Palestine natural resources, preventing the development of its economy. This cycle continues as Israel produces several goods and services, invading the Palestinian markets with its products, and forcing the Palestinians to buy it as they do not have alternatives. Israel is expanding and experiencing economic flourish while Palestinian are suffering from poverty, high rate of unemployability, bad health care, and several other problems.Political intervention from the West in Palestine is done through aid intervention. According to Matunhu J, “modernization is associated with development aid from the developed countries”  (3). Aids have implicit exploitation notion. For example, international projects for street constructions in Palestine are for the favor of protecting Israel security and confiscate more lands. This idea of aid and political intervention is well represented as Matunhu J writes,”aid has strings attached to them. These strings tended to beneficiate the metropolitan state more than the recipient countries. Today China is one of Africa’s biggest trade partners because it has arranged aid conditions that are more favorable to Africa than those of the West. But the story still remains the same that China is interested in exploiting Africa’s resources ahead of Europe and America” (3)    Establishing Israel state on the Palestinian lands and in the center of the Middle East was the aim of the West to keep control over Arab countries. Having a national hometown for Jews in Palestine enables the West to expand, leaving the periphery countries behind. All the aids and the implemented project from the West in Palestine give the Palestinian illusion about achieving development. This aid game prevents the indigenous (Palestinians) to be innovative, creative, and solve their problems without interfering of any other group.              However, modernization and dependency are trying to silence the social development As it is mentioned before that both theories have a specific structure that has been implemented in the West and I did succeed in their countries. However, applying these two theories in the development process in Palestine will be preceded by a process deculturalization for the Palestinian society.  This idea is illustrated in  Matunhu J depiction, “The above idea depictsModernization as a process of change whereby external factors have an impact on the individual and on culture. …. It is about the abandonment of an individual’s cultural values in favor of that of the former colonizers” (3). Following the path of other countries in applying both modernization and dependency theories which have a different culture, will force a change of norms, values of the Palestinian society as a whole. Moreover,  having these theories implemented as a development process of Palestine vanishes the indigenous right of determining their development strategy. According to Human Rights Based Approach (HRBA), People who are affected by the problem are the ones who can solve it. Problem causes and effects are well observed by the one who suffers from it.  They know their society’s need and how to implement it. Many of what is called development projects in the third world countries failed. This is due to prior strategies and plans that the donors came with, without asking about the real need of people, giving them the lead to specify their problems and choose a way to solve it.             In conclusion, applying modernization and dependency theories on Palestine has an impact on economy, politics, and society. In a situation of occupation, where all the resources, lands, borders are controlled by the Israeli forces. When all the transformation achieved by indigenous people destroyed in one war, does still the argument go around development and backwardness? Is development must be external? Why there is a gap between plans and outcomes of development projects in Palestine? Why must every country follow the same development ladder of other developed countries? As Edward Said claims in “Representing the colonized”,  having narration different than the colonizer one, give you a power. (Said 215)          Work CitedFrank, Andre G. The Development of Underdevelopment.Boston: New England Free Press, 1966. Print.Matunhu,j. “A critique of Modernization And Dependency Theories In Africa: Critical Assessment.” African Journal of History and Culture, 6 Apr.2011Said, Edward W. “Representing the colonized: Anthropology’s interlocutors.”Critical inquiry (1989): 205-225.TIPPS, DEAN. “Modernization Theory and the Comparative Study of Societies: A Critical Perspective.”  Cambridge University Press, 26 Mar.2012