students that students responded to shame related

students were used as study participants.
 It showed that social norms were
proportionately related to alcohol consumption rates.  This is a clear indicator that drinking among
college students is normal and for a student to fit into the college culture,
they must engage in drinking.

Overt drinking offers

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Direct peer pressure often refers
to explicit offers to drink alcohol (Wood,
2004).
 Under overt drinking offers, the
individuals are ridiculed for abstaining from drinking, having free offers and
refills, or being urged to “buy rounds” for the group.  In China, for instance, it is disrespectful
to decline an offer for beer from a friend.  So in order to feel accepted and avoid being an
outcast, people usually comply with peers’ offer of alcohol.  Additionally, the Chinese believe in
collectivism and that sharing beer is a good way of demonstrating hospitality
(Rosenbluth, Nathan, & Lawson, 1978).  There has been qualitative studies ran to
describe the influence of overt drinking offers on alcohol drinking in college
students.  According to Howard et al.
(2007), male students were more likely to engage in heavy drinking as a show of
courage. This was perceived as a tactic to evade isolation and avoid ridicule
from peers.  A study by Lashbrook (2000) theorized
that students responded to shame related feelings: someone that is afraid of
being viewed as inadequate, feeling isolated, and being chastised when faced
with coercion from peers.  Refusing
offers of alcohol resulted in peer isolation and exclusion from social
activities (Rabow,
1995).
 

Quantitative data
from Shore and colleagues (1983) show that students who have received more
drinking offers but had a low resistance to offers were more than likely to be
involved in excessive drinking.  For
junior undergraduate students and female drinkers, the effect of drinking
offers was less obvious (Klein,
1991).
 The influence of drinks offered by peers
was associated with alcohol-related problems.  Students who were given more offers to drink
alcohol