With we have to change according to

With
the introduction of computers, the world was changed forever. Using computers
and software for business, education, entertainment and many more areas became
a trend in modern world. Because they use information technology to ensure that
their day to day activities ran smoothly. Information technology usage is not
limited to human resources, finance, manufacturing and security. It is the
mechanism that reflect the image of each and everything in this modern
world.  Simply no one will survive in
this modern world if not adopt to information technology.

In
the business world they purchase software and hardware that helps them to get
their jobs done. For example, they are using information technology to keep
connection between supply and demand. If we take Amazon it helps busy consumers
to their busy shopping. How wonder now we can continue our shopping by few
clicks on web site as a result of information technology.

While
information technology playing major role in modern world how we will manage to
survive. Most importantly to survive we have to change according to this
changing world.  

Information
technology is a combination of hardware and software. Hardware are the devices
that we can physically see with the main component. Such as monitor, processor,
printer etc. Software re the programs that allow the hardware to process the
data. So information technology is a combination of hardware and software. We
are going to identify hardware and software later from this research.

And
also what is the role of data and information. As per the general definition of
information technology it is the application of computers to store, study,
retrieve, transmit and manipulate data or information. So combination of
hardware, software, data and information we call information technology. About
data and information we are going to discuss later from this research.

Finally
according to business dictionary information technology is set of tools
processes and methodologies (such as coding/programming, data communication,
data conversion, storage and retrieval, system analysis and design, system
control) and associated equipment employees to collect, process and present
information. In broad terms information technology also includes office
automation, multimedia and telecommunications.

Through this whole assignment report I am going to
study about hardware, software, data and information which we known as main
components of information

 

1.   
What is the Difference
between Data and Information?

 

1.1. Data

In
general data is any set of characters that has been gathered and translated for
some purpose, usually analysis. It can be any character including text and
numbers, pictures, sounds or videos. According to computer dictionary computer
data is information processed or stored by a computer. This information may be
in the form of text documents, images, audio clips or another types of data.

1.2. Information

According
to general dictionary information means knowledge communicated or received
concerning a particular fact or circumstances. And it’s the knowledge we can
gathered through study, communication, research or instruction. Information is
stimuli that is more important for its receiver to make decisions. When we
entered information to the computer it is generally referred to as data.

1.3. Difference between Data and Information

The
words data and information both looks similar and most people use these words
frequently. But according to some circumstances both have lots of differences
between them. Data usually refers to raw data or unprocessed data. It is the
basic form of data. After analyzing or processing data considered as
information.

Basically
information is the message that can be used to make decisions and predict about
future. Once data processed, organized, structured or presented in a given
manner it will become useful. Data itself is fairly useless until it is
processed to get meaning as information.    

Data

Information

·        
Data is unapproved facts and
figures and its used as input for the computer system
 

Information
is the output of processed data.
Information
= Data + Meaning
 
 

·        
Data is a single unit which
contains raw material and doesn’t carry meaning.
 

Information is the
product and group of data which collectively carry a logical meaning.
 

·        
Data is used as input which needs
to be processed and organized in a particular fashion to generate output
information.
 

·        
Information is derived from data
hence data not rely upon information but information does.
 
 

·        
Data is input language for a
computer

·        
information is the output language
for human.
 

·        
Example : Scores of 100 students in
a school is a data

·        
average score of school will be the
information.
·        
 

·        
            Example – Weather of country for
past 10 months is data

·        
broadcast about weather for next
month would be information.
 

 

2.    What are the 5 Types of Hardware Devices and Write down 3
Examples for each and every Types with a Short Note?

2.1. Hardware

In
information technology hardware is the physical aspect of computers,
telecommunications and other devices.

(Source:
www.whatis.com)

            Computer hardware is the physical
parts or components of a computer such as monitor, keyboard, computer data
storage, graphic card, sound card and mother board.

(Source:
Wikipedia.org)

 

2.2. Types of Hardware Devices

·        
Input Devices

·        
Output Devices

·        
Input output devices

·        
Storage devices

·        
Processing devices

 

2.2.1.   Input Devices

          Input Device is any
hardware device that sends data to a computer allowing us to interact with it
and control it. Simply input devices allow us to enter information. The most
fundamental pieces of information are keystrokes on a keyboard and clicks with
a mouse

·        
Key Board

Key Board is the most common and very popular input
device which helps to enter data to the computer. Keyboard layout typically
similar to traditional typewriter without contains some additional keys.
Normally typing keys, Typing keys, Numeric Keys, function keys, control keys
and special purpose keys.

 

 

·        
Scanner

Scanner
is an input device which works more like a photo copy machine. It is used when
some information is available on paper and it is to be transferred to the hard
disk

 

 

 

 

·        
Mouse

Mouse
is a pointing device. It is a very famous cursor control device. Generally it
has two buttons called left and right buttons. Mouse is always easy to use and
help to move the cursor faster than he arrow keys of the keyboard

 

2.2.2.   Output Devices

Computer
output devices get information out of the computer and delivering data that has
been processed by the computer to us. It can be in difference forms such as
audio, visual and hard copy. Computer output devices are all peripheral
hardware connected to a computer using cables or wireless networking.

·        
Monitor/VDU

A computer monitor is an output device
which displays information in pictorial form. So monitors usually called as
visual display unit and it is the main output device of a computer. Monitors
come in a variety of screen sizes and resolutions. There are two common types
of modern computer monitors.

Cathode ray tube monitor and Flat panel Screens.

 

·        
Printer

Printers produce a hard copy of version of processed
data such as documents and photographs. There are three types of printers.

                        Ink jet

                        Laser

                        Dot Matrix

Most people using laser printers since the quality is
better and the output is faster. Printer should connect to the computer of
networked using a printer server.

 

·        
Projector

Projectors are display devices that project a computer
created image. The computer sends the image data to its video card, which then
send the video image to the projector. They are typically used for
presentations or for viewing videos.

 

2.2.3.   Input out put Devices

Input/
Out put Devices also known as IO Devices. It is a Hardware device that has a
ability inputted outputted or other processed data.IO devices also can receive
respective media data as input send to a computer or sent computer data to
storage media as storage devices.

·        
Modem

A
modem is a device or programme. It can allow a computer to transmit the data
over (ex: telephone or cable lines).computer information is stored digitally
whereas information transmitted over telephone lines id transmitted in the form
of analog waves. A modem coverts between these two forms.

 

 

·        
Pen Drive

Pen
drive is a USB flash Drive. It is a Removable storage Device, with an
integrated universal serial bus( BUS) interface.

 

 

 

·        
Touch Screen(computers)

Touch
Screen is technology that screen sensitive to touch/pressure. This is used in
some lap tops, mobile phones, Tabs, ATM machines

 

2.2.4.   Storage Devices

A
storage Device also known as storage medium or storage media. It is an any
computing hard ware used for storing, porting and extracting data files and objects.
Storage devices can hold and store information both temporarily and permanently
and can be internal or external to a computer.

 

·        
Hard Disk

This
is the main and usually largest data storage device in a computer. It can store
anywhere for om
160gigabytes to 2 terabytes. Hard disks are not removable from the computer.

 

 

 

·        
Floppy Disk

Floppy
Disk is flexible, low cost storage device. It is a circular thin plastic disk
created with magnetic material on both sides. It is used to record and take the
information from one computer to any other computer.

 

 

 

 

·        
Compact Disk (CD)

CD
is the most existing development that has taken place in secondary storage in
recent years. It is the latest technology with high capacity storage disk that
work with laser. We can store different types of data such as audio, video,
text files, animation, pictures and graphs on the disk.

 

2.2.5.   Processing Devices

When computer
receives data from an input device the data must go through an intermediate
stage before it can be sent to an output device. A processing device is any device
in s computer that handles this intermediate stage.

·        
Central Processing Unit (CPU)

A
computer’s CPU handles all instructions it receives from hardware and software
running on the computer. So CPU is referred to as the brain of the computer.

 

 

 

·        
Graphic Processing Unit (GPU)

Alternatively
known as a display adopter, graphic card, video adopter, video board or video
controller. Video card is a internal board creates a picture on a display.

 

 

 

 

·        
Motherboard

The
motherboard is a printed circuit that is the foundation of a computer, located
on the back side or at the bottom of the computer. It allocates power and
allows communication to the CPU, RAM and all other computer hardware
components.

 

3.    What are the Different Types of Software?

3.1. Software

Computer
software is a set of instructions and associated documentation that tells a
computer what to do or how to perform a task. It can mean all the software on a
computer including the applications and the operating system

3.2. Different types of software

1.      System
Software

2.      Application
Software

 

4.    Write Down Brief Notes Regarding Different Types of Software
and Give Examples to Each and Every Type of Software 

 

 

4.1. System Software

System
software is computer software designed to provide a platform to other software.
It refers to the files and programs that make up your computer’s operating
system. The system software is installed on the computer when we install
operating system. Since system software runs at the most basic level of the
computer and it is called low – level software.

4.1.1.   Examples  

·       
Operating System

Operating
system is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources
and provide common services for computer programs. The operating system acts as
an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware.

·       
Device Drivers

In
computing device driver is a computer program that operates or controls a
particular type of device that is attached to a computer. This helps operating
system and other computer programs to access hardware functions without needing
to know precise details of the hardware being used.

 

 

·       
Middleware

Middleware
is a computer software that provides services to software applications beyond
those available from the operating system. Middleware makes it easier for
software developers to implement communication and input output, so they can
focus on the specific purpose of their application.

 

4.2. Application Software

An application program is a computer program designed to
perform a group of coordinated functions, tasks or activities for the benefit
of the user. The application software refers to all applications collectively.
This contrast with system software which is mainly involved with running the
computer.

4.2.1.   Examples

·       
Word Processor

Word
processor is an electronic device or computer software application that
performs the task of composing, editing, formatting and printing of documents.
Word processing was one of the earliest applications for the personal computer
in office productivity and was the most widely used application on personal
computers.

 

·       
Accounting Software

Accounting
software describes a type of application software that records and processed
accounting transactions within functional modules such as accounts payable,
account receivable, general ledger, payroll and trial balance. It functions as
an accounting information system

·       
Spreadsheet

Spreadsheet is an
interactive computer application for organization analysis and storage of data
in tabular form. Spreadsheets are developed as computerized simulations of
paper accounting worksheets.

 

 

5.    Conclusion

   

Information
technology helps to business, government and individuals increase their
efficiency and effectiveness. Rapid improvements in hardware and processing
ability forces consumers to purchase new relevant technology.

    Data, information, software and hardware are
four elements that relatively become part of the information technology. And
also all four elements interrelated to each other. Data fairly useful if it
takes alone without other process. In order to transfer data into information
hardware and software needed.    

    Technology becomes most important factor in
modern world. Without technology it is hard to survive.  For complete the term of information
technology data. Information, hardware and software playing a major role.  Through this whole research it is become
crystal clear that all four elements have to do important role in process.

    Modern world become more mature and people
trying to use more and more innovative things with their capabilities and
knowledge. People making new software devices and programs to make their data
and information safe. Because development of information technology leads a
threat to safety. But if we refuse to be a part of information technology it
will be difficult because I cannot complete this document without help of IT
and you cannot read it without IT.Finally I would like to thanks Ms Yasanthika Mathotaarachchi
who gave us to chance for get more knowledge about IT through this assigmennt.

 

 

 

6.    References

 

1.     
Business Dictionary

2.     
Importance of information technology in
different fields – FNR solutions – LinkedIn Article.

3.     
www.wikipedia.org
– Information Technology

4.     
www.tchdifference.net
– Data and information

5.     
www.wikipedia.org
– Hardware and Software

6.     
www.tutorialsupport.com
– Hardware and Software

7.     
www.techopedia.com
– Output Devices and Input Devices

8.     
www.itforcxc.com
– Memory Devices

9.     
www.computerprofessor.com
– Types of Software

10. 
www.computerhope.com